An open letter to an inquisitive young Ethiopian sister: Ethiopian history is not three thousand years!

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By Ephraim Isaac,
B.A., B.D., Ph.D., D.Litt, D.H.L.

Dear Beloved Ethiopian Sister,

Thank you very much for your important question about the origin and extent of Ethiopian history.

Thank you for inspiring me to write this response.
ephrem
I am prompted to write the response to your question in a public forum. I do so because many of your doubting friends to whom you refer would also be able to see my answers.

You write, “Edeminot, I would like to ask you something if you have [the] time. [Many] people … specially the young…have doubts about our 3000 years history … they ask [for] evidence… Some comment that[one ethnic group] wrote the history like they want… [But] they doubt if our history is even 100 years…. Can you suggest [to] me [a] good book… about Ethiopia?Thank you, Sir”[M.B.]

I have always known young Ethiopians to be bright and inquisitive. Over 600 years ago it was written in Mashafa Berhan (please see my own translation The Book of Light, EJ Brill,1973) from Emperor Zar’aYa’eqob (1434-68) time: “all the peoples of Ethiopia are thirsty for knowledge”. So, I am really not surprised to know that our young continue the ancient tradition of our people to be thirsty for knowledge. I am especially happy that they are inquisitive about our common history. May the Almighty bless them and open the door for them to learn and teach.

Right at the outset, let me tell you that the young people are right to say that we do not have a 3000-year history. We have a 10,000-year common history! Going back to about 10,000 years, all the peoples who inhabit Ethiopia-Eritrea-Horn of Africa today had one single common ancestry.

As you probably know, I am a student of ancient Semitic and Afroasiatic languages. So, my answer here to your question about a common Ethiopian ancestry and heritage is based on a sound ground of the study of Ethiopian languages and conclusions reached by the leading international experts of historical linguistics– scholars from Russia, France, Germany, Israel, Australia, USA, et.al. My own Institute of Semitic Studies publishes the major scholarly publication in this field: Journal of Afroasiatic Languages.)

About 10,000 years ago, one single nation or community of a single linguistic group existed in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Horn of Africa. That nation had one culture and one language. For lack of better terminology most scholars call that language Proto-Afroasiatic (PA.)Most, if not all the languages of Ethiopia today, definitely Ge’ez, Oromifa, Amharic, Tigrigna, Afar, Gurage, Hadiya, Kambaata,Somali, Sidamo, and all the other languages known as Semitic and Cushitic as well as Omotic that including Wolaytta,Hamar, Amuru, Boro, Anfillo,Ari,et.al. are branches of oneancient language spoken by one people.

This is not just my view. As I said above,it is the view of impartial worldwide linguists. They are scholars who study ancient languages and the origin of languages objectively and scientifically. They do deep linguistic research objectively and might have not even visited Ethiopia, like some of the subjective (tiraaznataq) social scientists who think they know everything about our country after a year or two of a visit and study, and whose writings often mislead not only our youth but also our educators.

My sister: the study of languages is not social science speculation. The relationship of most of the languages of Ethiopia today and the other languages of the world is based on serious scientific research — a systematic and in-depth comparative analysis of languages and historical linguistics.

As an example, it is easy to find words in Oromifa that are identical to Hebrew or Ge’ez, two closely related Semitic languages. For instance, Oromifa words like ana (I),ati (you), abba (father),lubbu (soul, heart), kal? (kidney), d?m? (red),gar? (abdomen, throat) ba? (come out, come), simbro (bird), r?ti (goat), sa’a (cattle),jir ? (dwell, live),gib?/goba (hill),‘ol (upward),‘akkam (how? like what?), m?l (what, why) etc. are interesting proto-Afroasiatic terms that have cognates found also in Hebrew and other Semitic languages. Certainly such specific words point to a strong relationship of one or two languages. They are important, but not even definitive for our basic conclusion.

What really determine the relationship of languages are not only similarities in core vocabularies, but more importantly grammar. It is not the relation of words but the formal analysis and identification of thestructure (morphology) of the languages. In this regard, almost all Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Horn of Africa languages of today originate from one language, PA. We can conclude that the Ethiopian speakers of these languages today descend from one primordial family.

Unfortunately, not on account of their own fault, our young people are not up to date on the study of ancient languages and ancient world history, particularly their own. On the contrary, some half-baked foreign experts of Ethiopia and political philosophy condition them. I elaborate these problems in the following three points: a) reading of available social science writings that focus on our differences instead of on our similarities and common heritage; b)the recent powerful worldwide political philosophies that questioned the validity of our past history and cultures and influenced the world view of the my generation of Ethiopians; and c) the deficiency of our modern educational system going back to the last century.

First the question the youth raise about the origin of our Ethiopian history or the assumption they make about its chronological extent is distorted unfortunately by reading the books of some modern half-baked foreign academic “experts” of Ethiopia,anthropologists, sociologists, and political scientists. Unquestioning or trusting Ethiopian students and teachers have transmitted the writings and thoughts of these mostly foreign scholars to our generation of Ethiopians. Many of these fellow Ethiopians, close friends of mine included, are educators in our schools and professors in our universities and leaders in our institutions.

Social scientists make legitimate contribution in their respective fields. However, most of them do not study ancient languages and literatures. So, they often rush into historical, anthropological, and sociological judgments. Their conclusions are based on “field research” or translated documents, conclusions “lost in translation”.

Worse still, anthropologists and social scientists, even some historians, focus on what superficially differentiates Ethiopian ethnic/linguistic groups, not on what fundamentally unites them, or what they have in common.

1. There are two incidents I still remember vividly. In the mid-60s when I was a student at Harvard, I was hired as an Amharic teacher for the Peace Corps. The first night at the dinner for all the teachers, a sociologist asked me where I was from. Of course “Ethiopia,” I said. “No”, he said,“are you Amhara, Oromo, Gurage, or Tigre?” “I am an Ethiopian,” I repeated. “So what language do you speak?” I responded, “I speak Oromo, Amharic, and Tigrinya, Hebrew, know words in Gurage, and know many other foreign languages.” He went on, “So, what is your religion?” I replied, “I believe in One God”. Finally, he was frustrated with me and walked away. Some might say that his motives were malicious. I cannot judge. He could have just been naively inquisitive.

2. In 1967, when I was back home as Director General of the National Literacy Campaign of Ethiopia, I was invited by the students of the then Haile-Selassie I University to speak at the annual meeting of Union of Ethiopian Students. After my talk I was invited to sit for dinner at the table for the student leaders. Our conversation quickly turned to the question of nationalities. One student asked me whether I had read William Shack’s book, The Gurage. I happened not only to have read the book but I even also knew the author personally, so I told him. He said, “I am a Gurage, and I did not know that we Gurages are an industrial people until I read this book”. It was a pity that he had a foreigner to make him proud of his ancestry, as all Ethiopian should know and be proud of their respective heritage or ancestry.

In those days, there was a story that foreign social scientists bait Ethiopians asking what Ethiopian national group they originate from, ascribing to the different nationalities political savvy, democratic idealism, or intellectual ability and the like to each respective group. They then prod them, saying that their particular ethnic group must be the leaders who must govern Ethiopia. I could be wrong, but the whole objective appears not for our welfare but to dominate us through “divide and control”.

Of course, there exist many interesting and beautiful differences [I like to think so] among our Ethiopian peoples. But there also exist many amazingly interesting common cultural and historical features and essentials. For instance, the Sidama, Hadiya, Kembata, etc. (of what is known in general Highland East Cushitic group) beyond a thousand or even less years have a common history.The history that we write today for each of these languages/ people going back a thousand years also concerns the other. Argobba and Amharic speakers share the same ancestor that dates about 1200 years ago. The Argobba history beyond 1200 years is also a history of Amharic speakers and vice-versa. If we go back about 2500 years the history of the Argobba-Amharic group also is the history of Harari, Silte, Wolane, and Zay. Then,if we go back about 10,000 years all the Cushitic, Semitic, and Omoticl anguages within our present borders, and the other Afroasiatic languages, that are/ were spoken beyond our current territory such as Berber, Chadic, Old Egyptian, Hebrew, Arabic, will share the same history as they descended from the same proto-language.

One absurd theory that has taken deep root in the thinking of most foreign and even Ethiopian historians is that the Oromo came to Ethiopia in or about the 16th century. During any civil war, as it happened in Ethiopia after the 16th century, and indeed as it happens everywhere in the world even today, there is always a large population movement. But there is no proof that the large great Oromo population appeared in Ethiopia about five hundred years ago. I did once attempt to answer this simplistic question with its self-evident answer at a lecture I gave in 1972 at the then Haile Selassie I University when I was on leave from Harvard. But, this is not the place to go into it now.

In short, however, our study of the Afroasiatic languages does not support the untenable 16th century migration story. Oromifa is indeed one of the original Proto-Afroasiatic dialects of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. The Oromo, like most of the peoples of Ethiopia today, are among the first speakers of Proto-Afroasiatic and contrary to the odd theory, one of the earliest inhabitants of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Their first ancestors can be said to be the common ancestors of most of the peoples who inhabit Ethiopia today from the North to the South, from the east to the west.

We Ethiopians must all be proud of our present respective distinct linguistic and cultural heritages — as long as we do not preach our own singular superiority. Indeed, we Ethiopians are a beautiful multi-lingual and multi-cultural people who in a flower vase called Ethiopia decorate the great continent of Africa.

Sadly, I have yet to see any serious social science book that focuses on our common heritage. (I once published an essay called Social Structure of the Ethiopian Church in the Ethiopia Observer, edited by our distinguished Ethiopisant, Richard Pankhurst, in 1972. Some similar ideas were repeated in Donald Levin’s more well-known “Greater Ethiopia” but one published a couple years later in 1974.) However, we still await more comprehensive anthropological and sociological studies that would focus on the key common heritage of the peoples of Ethiopia rather than always focusing on what separate us and distinguish us from each other as some social scientists tend to do.

Secondly, the generation of the 60’s and 70’s were exposed to foreign Marxist-Leninist thought. It is my generation and many of the actors were personal friends. Some of the leaders were my successors as Presidents of the Ethiopian Student Association in North America. Even if I did not subscribe to their philosophy, I had a lot of respect for them. They too were patriotic. They loved Ethiopia and wanted the best for their country. They wanted to see a modernized Ethiopia: democracy, justice, land to the tillers with which we all agreed.

Beyond such admirable aspirations, however, they were misguided and blinded by a zeal for the then worldwide popular ideologies. I respectfully conclude that they knew very little about Ethiopia and its history and culture. In addition to being indoctrinated by the kind of anthropological works I referred to above, they discovered Marx and Engels, Lenin and Mao- studied with Marcuse—and became preoccupied with these rightly great political thinkers whom they almost worshiped. With the exception of a handful, the blind majority became even so negative about the value and greatness of Ethiopian history and cultures. To be fair, it was not all their fault as I indicate in the following.

Thirdly, the Ethiopian Ministry of Education never developed a curriculum of rigorous study of Ethiopian languages, literature, and history in our academic institutions during my generation. During my two years at the then University College of Addis Abba (1954-56), I took courses on medieval and modern European history, as well as on USA history and geography. Today, we live in a global cosmopolitan world. Therefore, of course, it is important for us Ethiopians to study European, American, Indian, Chinese, Near Eastern histories, languages and cultures and of all the peoples of the world. That is not the problem. However, not a single course was offered on Ethiopian history in our institutions as long I remember. The problem thus became complicated not only by the dearth of the study of Ethiopia, but also by what was being offered (on the contrary)- the study of western history and philosophy without the centrality of the study of our own Ethiopia in the context of its relations to these other world cultures.

It was after I came to the United States that I discovered Ethiopia. I started finding books in the libraries of Harvard about Ethiopia and its ancient history. My eyes got opened to the riches of Ethiopian languages and cultures. I met Harvard professors who knew the Ge’ez language and had read the Ethiopic Book of Enoch and Ethiopic Book of Jubilees. The fact that distinguished Harvard scholars considered such Ethiopic works of such great significance, of course, opened my eyes to the seriousness of studying ancient Ethiopian languages and cultures.

As a person even in my younger days fascinated by the ancient world I would have loved to take a course on ancient or“medieval” Ethiopian history. But as I said above no such courses were being offered at the University College. After many years in the US and when I became one of the promoters of the National Literacy Campaign of Ethiopia, I had the opportunity to confront directly the then Minster of Education “why were course not offered on Ethiopian history, languages and cultures in our university?” His only answer to me was that the college curricula was developed by foreigners who did not know Ethiopian history and that we did not have professors who could teach these subjects. That is why my first exposure to the study of Ethiopian languages and history, as I alluded to above, was only when I became a student at Harvard in the 60’s.

In short, an educated Ethiopian must study other cultures. But there is no reason why we should know more about them and less about our own. It is not good enough to read uncritically books about our own history and culture written by foreign social scientists that focus on our differences, instead of on our common heritage. If we read books written by Machiavelli, Hobbes, Marx, Lenin and Mao, why not those attributed to Kristos Samra, Iyasus Mo’a, Zar’a Ya’eqob, Ewestatewos, Onesimos Nasib, and our other ancient writers?We do we not study Ge’ez poetry and literature?Why do we not study and research the rich oral tradition of the Oromo and other Ethiopian peoples about human wisdom and political democratic philosophy? Why do we not listen to or learn from our own ordinary village elders about mutual respect, humility of knowledge, and, love of peace and wisdom.

In conclusion, my sister, it is true we have a one hundred year history. It is true also that we have a 3000-year history, which can easily be verifiable from various records: artifacts, inscriptions, etc. It is also true that, leaving the further pre-historic period, we have at least a linguistically proven history that we all share for 10,000 years!

(Someone might ask so why do we fight with each other then? Well, have you not heard of brothers and sisters who are in continual combat?)

Beyond our common ancestry, it is a fact that there is a mixture of people in our country through intermarriage, language shift, etc. If a genuine scientific study is done, I am sure that the majority of our people will be of this mixed heritage/ ancestor. At one occasion, I remember that I respectfully joked to my late great friend, our Prime Minister, Meles Zenawi (may the Almighty bless his soul): if an Ethiopian says I am a pure Oromo, Amhara, Tigre etc. he/she shouldn’t get a passport; he or she should prove to be mixed! Ethiopia is not a country comprised of racially distinct peoples. The differences among its people is only with languages that even shrink whenever we go back in time until all become one (recall above)!

Even if we do not have this amazing blood-bonded 10,000-year common history, we are together now. The earth under our feet is a single united ground. It is a paradise that is hidden to us. Our country is a sleeping giant — as I heard recently from the former President of the South African Bank.

Just focusing on the present linguistic differences does not help our economic growth and strength. If we spend our energy looking at our differences negatively instead of weaving a beautiful mosaic together we go nowhere.

So should we not enjoy our beautiful multi-color linguistic and cultural differences aesthetically and be proud of our separate contributions and go forward?

Is it necessary to focus on our differences and become fragmented and weak, fighting each other? Or, is it not better to try to accept our mutual differences and then build together a strong united economic and peaceful front that will benefit each and every Ethiopian whatever his/her background?

In passing, let me also add that like our beautiful ethnic differences, our political and religious differences should also be respected. They should not stand in the way of our economic progress. Our political and religious leaders, educators, businesspeople, and civil servants deserve our respect and love. In turn they should show love and respect to all our peoples. Let us not engage in energy-wasting arguments about our differences, whatever they might be. Instead let us patiently listen to each other and respect each other, as our ordinary Ethiopian people actually do. The only way you and I benefit even as individuals, whatsoever our differences, is when all benefit! There is a Jewish saying, “every Jew leans on every other Jew.” That way we can stand strong and do not fall. So, let us unite and show each other love and respect. Let us focus our energy onto overcoming poverty, disease, and illiteracy. That way, Mother Ethiopia can show all Africa too the high way.

Ethiopia is a melting pot. There are now two countries I know that are also melting pots, the US and Israel. Both countries are economically at the forefront of world history. Yet their people are ethnically and linguistically of more different origins than we Ethiopians are. In spite of that, they focus on their common heritage and work together to be socially and economically strong. And they are strong!!! Can we learn from them?

My Sister: Please forgive me if my answer is a long letter. Indeed the answer to your question is a book, not even a long letter. I hope that our Universities will begin to focus on important linguistic, historical, and cultural studies of our peoples to appreciate the positive side of both our differences and similarities and to put them to our economic strength and the prosperity of Ethiopia based on mutual respect and love.

Ephraim Isaac, B.A., B.D., Ph.D., D.Litt, D.H.L.

eisaac@post.harvard.edu

Source: Ethiopian Reporter Newspaper

33 Comments

  1. Dear professor Isaac I have read this interesting articles of yours and I have learnt quite a lot and thank your for your contribution in this regard.

    You should have done a lot more in enlightening us about our shared history as Ethiopians and help us move as one strong nation but you chose to side with dictator meles and ignor the suffering of ethiopians under the cruel TPLF divide and rule monsters.

    The very sad reality is that knowing all this historical fact you were coopereting to disintegrate Ethiopia along ethnic line and you were not seen or heard opposing what is practiced in today’s Ethiopia, on the contrary you were serving this divide and rule monster regime led by meles.

  2. “Zoro zoro mezgiaw cheraro” a pitch of wayane is included in his conclusion 100 yrs. Such misleading information is not kosher. Please do not confuse our young generation as such.

  3. people living in the Ethiopia

    5000 years ago – 950 people
    2000 years ago – 15,000 people
    1000 years ago – 150,000 people
    500 years ago – 380, 240 people
    in the 18th century there was a large migration of people from the south and east the population increased to 3.5 million
    in 1960 the population rocketed to 23 million.

    I leave it to you to categorise how many of these were amharas, tigres, afar, oromo, guragei, sidama, kembata etc

    source : WHO

  4. Thank you professor for writing and the editor for posting this article. It brings fresh insight into the highly but unwisely contested Ethiopian identity at a time where people who are not grounded in their history and culture brag about everything and insult everybody else. Ethiopia is a country, when deeply studied, inspires love and belongingness. That is why Professor Claude Sumner chose to be Ethiopian though he was born Canadian. That is why Professor Richard Pankhurst stayed in Ethiopia despite old age and discomfort. Yes, I agree our education failed us. It is not late to restore Ethiopian divine philosophy in the curriculum albeit there is a gap in leadership and professionalism in the educational system. Thanks again.

  5. Good analysis professor. Can’t be said any better. I wonder how your pea brain friend late prime minister felt about this. The one you call “great friend” is no better than the rest of the western historians who always predict the demise of Ethiopia. The lord of Waldba will always protect Ethiopia from tyrants.

  6. Dear Dr. Ephraim,
    I read your article, and also amused that you published your response on a popular website of many Ethiopians. I wondered why it took you this long to engage in such a dialogue with your good friends- Woyane. You spent the last 20 some years to be the Messiah of peace by supporting the anti peace and anti Ethiopian history. You have the perfect opportunity now and then to preach your master. please do so still it is not late to challenge them.

  7. DEAR PROF
    PLZ MEET PROF MESFIN AND DIG ON IT BRING SOMETHING CONCRETE SO THAT WE CAN CATCH. PLZ DONOT INJECT US YOUR DREAM, MAY BE ZIONIST DREAM, DISTRACTING THE HISTORY OF OTHER NATION EXCEPT ISRAILE.

  8. which one is true? is it 100.3000.or 10000? in numerical world all the above doesn’t solve the equation. why keeping the truth under wrap? The question is the age of current Ethiopia ..MR Isaac you should have not fly over the map to answer the simplest question. I bet you don’t want to be objected by die hard minilk fanatics. it is not you did not know the history..

  9. dr. Ephriam, great Job i wish you keep helping our (ethiopians) understand who they are and where they came from.shalom

  10. GETACHEW REDA (Editor Ethiopian Semay)
    Dear readers. I do not like to come to the Habesha website. Unfortunately, I have to. Because too much anti Ethiopia propaganda is spread with no challenge on this website. Based on this, if that of Ze-Habesha child allows it to be posted, here it is.

    Dear Prof. Efrem:
    You know, I have no respect for you. You know yourself who you are in your deep soul when it comes to Ethiopia and serving foreign forces. Yes, you! you know that! You said ‘Sadly, I have yet to see any serious social science book that focuses on our common heritage.’ Of course there are many serious social science books, poems, oral traditional teachings that our ancestors left for us to learn from them. Unfortunately, an ethnic fascist leader admirer like you who advice ethno fascist elements from Tigray to continue burning books of unity and insult unity of books wrote by unifiers as NefteNga books should not express his sadness or complaining for yet so see any serious books of our common heritage.

    You are one of those lost professor whom I call them Professor Zero(0). You as half Yemeni and half Ethiopian breed should not have involved in supporting fascist ideology to be implemented in Ethiopia. Your leader and dear whom you called “dear friend” is the enemy of Ethiopian unity. Your little fascist friend who is half Eritrean and half Ethiopian breed has tremendous hate towards Ethiopian common heritage. He openly asks “What is Axum to the Wolayta?”. And yet little men like you admires him and called him “dear friend”. You are a nut and fascist lover. Go to hell with your Harvard and do your little secret works that you carried from the CIA by admiring your little fascist as dear friend. I pray his soul to go to hell, not as you pray for him his soul to be blessed in hell. You are one of the most dispeakbale human being I have ever seen who admires a fascist fellow who caused so much disintegration, havoc and ethnic conflict to my beloved Ethiopia. Go to hell with your study. There are many Ethiopian historians who are much better than you who could explain deep, deep common heritage of knowledge of our people. The problem with you and the ethnic fascist admirers is “how to serve foreign powers that you are serving hard in the destruction of Ethiopia by admiring fascist leaders in Ethiopia to have acceptance.”

    I have not seen a single paper from you or a single complain why your favorite fascist TPLF leaders and their puppets are doing ethnic campaign against Amhara. Where the hell are you, except admiring the very first individual who order the ethnic cleansing of Amhra as “dear friend”? Efrem, go to hell with your dear friend! Would you?
    Thanks Getachew Reda (editor Ethiopian Semay)

  11. Thank you dear professor!! the professor’s assessment is very powerful and authoritative for the whole world as he is one of the Topnotch Harvard Professors!
    However chauvinist elites may prefer the opinions of some ‘ debteras’ , ‘kebero mechis’ and some ‘village professors’ .For these elites Harvard professor’s assessment is noting however Harvard’s analysis and contribution is very valuable for the whole world! Professor Epherem again thank you for your wonderful contribution!!

  12. Dr. Ephraim
    evolutionary speaking your lingustics research finding is not a big deal to keep together the failed empire and the incomptable nations and nationalities together, because all human being is originated from the same ancestor and have similarities in one way or another. Human even share common ancestor with the modern Apes, Like gorillas and chimpanzees. You also blamed too much the failure of that country to the forieng social scientists ignoring all the internal crises that empire is facing for more than a century. You also talked much about the Horn of Africa even though the question is about true history of Common Ethiopia.

  13. This is educated lie! I am not buying it. Though I like almost any idea from any camp who tells me that we Ethiopians have a lot in common to live together, the above analysis is shallow despite the stature of ther writer I would expect much serious analysis.
    More importantly, what is the professors stand on current affair of the country? What ideology does he support? From a man of his stature (qualification) I would expect explicit stand for future of Ethiopia. For most of us the professor, started to live in Addis ababa (moved in) following the grip of the country by an Ethnic junta to which according to good estimate he also aligns himself with. This article overlooks or exenorates or legitmizes the right abuse, killing, subjugation, Ethnic dominance and internal colonization going on in Ethiopia about which most Ethiopians grieve. It is best to call a spade is a spade. Your excellency, though I appreciated your stand on Ethiopian unity, the fact that you don’t say nothing explicitly what political future is good for Ethiopia automatically puts you to be either passive or active supporter of woyane that makes you any different from the retired man Andreas who was the dead devil’s friend….

  14. Professor Ephrem, I truly appreciate for your innocent emphasize our unity. you recommend to read books written by Ethiopians to be acknowledged with the history. However, books written by Ethiopians particularly by “Habeshas” are toxic than foreigners.

    Professor Ephreim, I truly appreciate for your innocent to emphasize our unity. You recommend to read the books written by Ethiopians, however, the books particularly written by “Habeshas” which are toxic than the foreigners.

  15. Thank you very much Pr. Efrem, Perhaps you never talked about Ethiopian-History with Mr.MELES; I’ ve DOUBT:
    But i can say ‘ EWNETEGNA YE ETHIOPIA LEGE NEH ‘
    MEKAM BEALE
    SELAM

  16. When we tell the history of Ethiopia we have to start from the Nile valley civilization.
    That time, there were no jews or arabs. Read about king/priest Shabaka and the
    Shabaka Stone and a book “Ruins of Empires”. Telling it as is.

    An old down to the core Ethiopian from along the River Nile.

    Thank you.

  17. We can cite and say the importance of ones! The one thing we lacked is who is bold enough to work towards the achievement of UNITY and DEMOCRATIC EHTIOPIA!

    We can have numerous historians to preach like you. We need ACTIVISTS AND REAL UNITY FIGHTER NOT DIVIDERS LIKE YOU!
    YOU COOPERATED WITH DIVIDE AND RULE. YOU CANNOT PREACH UNITY! HISTORY WILL JUDGE YOU!!!!

  18. From GETACHEW REDA (Editor Ethiopian Semay)
    Though I appreciated the professors intention. One not need to study a complex social or linguistic science to find out how diverse Ethiopian are. Even many of the lunatic Islamo fascist “Oromia first” sloganeers are half Menz Amhara and half Oromo. Take all the OLF leaders they are mixed Amhara and Oromo. Take the new Islamo Fascist “Oromo First! ” or “the Machete Generation” sloganeers such as Jawar. His Mom is Menz Amhara Christian from Showa and his father is Oromo (may be even more different ethnic – if you go back further). But, the Machete Generation look a like the interhamuwe Rwanda youth Oromia is on self denial and sick on their head.

    Ethiopia will remain one be it they erected pornography breast status (what a sick brain these freaking groups are to erect a pornography of a breast? What about tomorrow Amhara or Tigre or Kambata or Hadiya or Harrari ethnic erect a status of a ‘biggo’ mutilated penis cut by the Galla pastoralist during the 16 Century or by the dick craze “OLF/OPDO” held on a status of man’s hand?). You know Ethiopia will be the headache of the “dick craze” OLF/OPDO anthill the Machete Generation is out of its Sandwich addiction and move to the jungle of Oromo and sleep in the malaria infested jungle and drink the amoeba infested water.

    The internet is to warm for the machete Generation. And easy to carry any slogan or any emotion on You Tube. But, practically, they do not want to live in Ethiopia and fight even with the machete they pose it on their waist and hand for Photo opportunity. They are too cowardice. They flee like a woman and faming here with their Machete on the internet and radio lying to themselves.

    They love sandwich and You Tube on line music. Their old dudes like Lencho and his likes are on welfare begging foreign countries to shelter them after they got the air too hot for them to stay in the Oromia jungle. Yea! And the ‘Machete Generation’ too have no clue but to self lionized themselves on You Tube and radio far away from Ethiopia (8,766 Miles ). Ethiopia’s gun is too hot to handle to anyone! Too hot to stay in the Jungle of Oromia!! is not it?

    These liars can’t even go to Eritrea to get trained let alone to go to the Oromo jungle. How hard can it be than to go to Eritrea? But, they know their leaders do not want them to go, because they want them here for Festival stages in USA and Europe to control the mind of their poor ill informed community as a source to suck money out of them. Remember the OLF splinted one calls ‘Shanee group’ and the other ‘Sandwich group’ into three groups in Minnesota and went to court to claim the name who should be “OLF” and the money they suck out of the poor and west it to the court fee?

    How can one lie to its teeth and claim to liberate Oromo by sitting far away from the land they want to liberate. Living thousands of Miles away from Africa and yet none of those “Machete Generation” want to go and sacrifice even a month to liberate Oromia in the hot malaria infested jungle of Oromia is puzzling. The mind controlee freaks are controlling their youth mind to act just like them. Self deriving is a sickness indeed! OLF and the Islamo fascist and the Machete Generation of Oromia ideology is pure fascism. They do not believe in mixed and deny belong to no body biologically, but to their ethnic (married each other). That is pure Fascism. They do not want to believe they too are mixed with other ethnic or race -unless , they are known by people around them who knew their biography and confess themselves as mixed when they see they can’t lie. Fascism also believe in a given Geographic territory as their belongings alone. They collided with history. Oddly, those mixed blood with other ethnic are the ones who crazy of the ” Machete Revolution” or become extremely radical and dangerous to humanity and act as pure Oromo. Sandwich addicts can’t liberate their brain which is suffering with deceit and wish of mass murder let alone to liberate a huge land 10,000 Miles away from where they seek asylum. I have never seen a laughable liberation front and mind control freaks who seeks asylum 10,000 Miles away from the land it claimed to liberate. These groups as the Kenyan journalist called them “freaks” are indeed freaks of the century. Move on to the present era issue you “porno heads”!
    Getachew REda (Editor Ethiopian Semay)

  19. If in 1960 it was 23000 million, in 1880’s it can’t be more than 17 million. If we assume the Oromo population was 40% by then Oromo population was about 6 Million. And according to mecha poleticians they want t believe that Minilik have killed 5 Million, almost the entire Oromo population. They will do anything ‘teret teret’ to realise Islamic Republic of Orromia

  20. The so called Professor is undoubtedly the agen of Mosad and CIA. What this did against our beloved country shouldn’t be forgotten. He collaborated with our mortal enemies because they also carry the same hatreate as him against our beautiful land and also our religion. This Zionist has a common agend with TPLF and others who are being engaged in destroying the soul of Ethiopia. I urge all Ethiopians to reject this fake professor.

  21. Thank you brother !
    Not once had to hear and read on the Internet about massive and terrible facts of falsification history of ethiopia.
    Of course, I followed with interest the similar discussions but anything that does not have explicity evidence, is doomed to failure.All these discussions are not over just yet demagoguery will not supported by the facts and archaeological finds.
    I believe the full fiction professor Ephraim Issac” for the sake of IMPERIAL needs ISRAEL” “at that-fabrication, absolutely no proven scientific and historian.

  22. this is exactly what CIA, LENCHO LATA, AND PROF. EPHREM ISAC promoting for future ETHIOIPIA. Guy read LENCHOS ODF MENEFESTO: it is a copy paste of Epherem Isacs letter. wake up Amara. this is for the advantage of OLF and TPLF.

  23. Zuramba
    I have huge difference with this scholar due the fact he sided Woyane during the time Ethiopia needs him most,how ever,nothing is too late.instead of trying to insult him in a very crud manner,challenge him in a civilized and reasonable way in this very important subject,don’t try to make it Paltalk nonesense argument.let wisdom guid us once a while.

  24. Well, Professor Yesaq has described what he has come across throughout his academic career ; and even if this history (be it linguistic , political, sociological, anthropological, and etc.) of thousands of years is not a new information, he is appreciated for let us know what he does know . On the other hand, I think that the question of to what extent our ancient history characterized by all kinds of legends and controversial accounts should not be neglected (intentionally or unintentionally) . I do not think the history of thousands of years which had and has been touched upon by so many historians ( credible or less credible) should be taken as a powerfully verified subject. What I am saying is let us not look at our history of thousands of history as something as dogmatic as a religious history – let us look at it as something that should be open to any relatively rational, scientific and less subjective researches and verifications.

    With regard to Professor Yesaq who claims to be an independent academicians/scholar, I am sorry to say but I have to say that the way he behaves ,especially since the political take over of TPLF/EPRDF dose not reflect the what he is trying to prove his academic personality. I do not know how a scholar who has been meddling in a very dirty political drama that has caused a very serious damage to the very history of Ethiopia and her people can reclaim his credibilty. I do not know how he thinks that he is for the great history of the country while he is willingly and actively taking a leading part in damaging the very great traditional way of reconciliation and conflict resolution – Shemgelenna ( the mediation by respected elders). I am sorry to say but I have to say that as far as the Professor keeps his willingness to do the dirty political job given by those few who ruling elites whose philosophy of life is “nothing is important beyond winning their livelihoods and beyond their graves ” , all his academic “greatness” will never make any real sense. History is not short of great orators and theoreticians but whose actual personalities have caused horrible damages. I hope , though it seems too late to make his mind, the Professor will show the people his courage how he has been victim of evil-driven political game, not simply telling the people about his own world of academy .

  25. From GETACHEW REDA (Editor Ethiopian Semay)
    Professor Efrem Issak is a close friend of the Apartheid TPLF and EPLF groups. As he confessed openly on his interview to the Apartheid TPLF media- he knew Melse Zenawi when Meles was the Apartheid guerrilla force leader of the TPLF.

    Efrem also had a close relation with the Eritrean EPLF group lead by Isayas Afewerki. Based on this Efrem always confessed, he have a great respect for both Fascist group. It this reason why Efrem called Issayas Afewerki to Princeton University in 2000 to give his side of lies about Ethiopia colonizing Eritrea.

    Efrem is not known for any role in student or Diaspora politics either under Haile Selassie or under the Derg, None the less serves as an American agent to track political developments in Ethiopia and the Horn in order undermine and derail Ethiopian nationalist dreams and objectives. Efrem was a leading protagonist in the important 1990 Toronto conference of Ethiopian armed and unarmed Diaspora political and civic association leaders to determine the future of post- Derg Ethiopia.

    He also claimed he is a Falasha Jew. Why is he lying? To my knowledge Professor Efrem is half Jew and half Ethiopian. His mother is an Oromo. No there is no Oromo known Felasha in our history. There is no also Yemeni Felasha. Felasha are Agewait Ethiopians in the Norther Ethiopia (Gonder, Gojam, Tigray, Wollo, Eritrea – remember there are 9 type of Agewait brunches). So his claim as Felasha Jews is a hoax to make his homework easy for the destabilization of Ethiopia by the Zionists and CIA (as they carry the moder slavery on the Felasha ethnic Ethiopians) by being a very close friend to the Apartheid guerrilla groups TPLF/EPLF/OLF.

    So Efrem was at Toronto apparently as a guest of the late Dereje Deressa , leader of the CIA organized and financed Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Alliance (EPDA) -, EPDA (Posidina, California 1982) and his cousin Hanna Deressa , both from Welega. Commodore Tasew Desta, President of EPDA where he represented the nationalist wing , in his book on the CIA entitled የIቲዮጵያ Aንድነት ትዝታና ትግል (Ye Ethiopia Andinet Tezetana Tegel) tells us about the CIA manipulation of the Toronto conference. We know that the CIA has been since 1969 giving arms, money and food to the EPLF and TPLF who were fighting first Haile Selassie’s Ethiopia then against the Derg, not only to break away from Ethiopia but for the total dismemberment of Ethiopia and the total deprivation of its Red Sea coast. Ethiopia has been rendered a land-locked state. Worse still, with EPLF and TPLF in Government Ethiopia has been transformed , certainly with the instrumental collaboration of “Peace Makers” like Efrem, into an American proxy colony deprived of its independence and sovereignty . All these are aspects that have tormented Ethiopian patriots since May 1991.
    Remmber, Efrem Yeshak was a guest speaker at the July 1991 Conference in Addis Ababa with the victorious U.S –TPLF-EPLF hand-picked people to consecrate the secession of Eritrea and draw the so called Charter of apartheid tribalization and the dismemberment of Ethiopia . His speech regarding TPLF victory was of great admiration .

    The late Professor Aleme Eshete who was my teacher and close friend of mine wrote “Efrem is said to have made a Qene of the leaders of Weyane including “Tamrat Layne” , then Prime Minister, which two words in his name have inspired Efrem to say “you have indeed shown us miracles” These are not academic or literary jokes but hard staff of life and death affecting the totality of Ethiopians which leave no space for money making business under any name. And as we shall see Efrem’s lime-lighted birth association with Welega may suggest OLF push and on his part some kind of unpublicized tolerance if not outright support to the Charter of Bantustanization”.
    Thanks Getachew Reda (Editor Ethiopian Semay)

  26. you are a Mosad agent we have to reject this Zionist and fake professor the enmey of ethiopian Muslims.

  27. Where was the Professor for the last 22 years of the TPLF dictatorship promoting the ruinous and divisive policy of TPLF along ethnic lines? Has he done anthing useful to address the plight of the Oromo people languishing in TPLF’s dungeons in Ethiopia?

  28. Mr. Eule und Klaun in einer Person,

    የዚያን ጭንጋፍ ባንዳ ስም ጠቅሶ “my great friend” የምትለዋን ቃል ለማስተላለፍ፣ ይሄን ሁሉ የቃላት ጥልፍልፍ ………….!

    ጓደኛህን ንገረኝና ማንነትህን ልንገርህ፣ የሚለው ለዘብተኛ ወቀሳ፣ ውሻ በበላበት ይጮሃል ከሚለው ምህረት የለሹ ስድብ እንደሚሻልዎት ተስፋ አደርጋለሁኝ……………………!

    ግን በዚያም ሆነ በዚህ መቸም ከሁለቱ አንዱ አለ………………………!

  29. As an example, it is easy to find words in Oromifa that are identical to Hebrew or Ge’ez, two closely related Semitic languages. For instance, Oromifa words abba (father),ወረድ ብሎ Addis Ababa ሚለውን Addis Abba ብሎ መጻፍ መልክቱ ወይም ሚስጥሩ ምን ለማስተላለፍ ተፈልጎ ነው?

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